3 - Hazards identification
Potential Health Effects
Eye Contact: May cause eye irritation
Skin Contact: At this time, it is not fully known whether skin penetration of nanoparticles
would result in adverse effects in animal models. However,topical application of raw SWCNT
to nude mice has been shown to cause dermal irritation[Murray et al. 2007]. Studies
conducted in vitro using primary or cultured human skin cells have shown that both SWCNT
and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) can enter cells and cause release of pro-
inflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress, and decreased viability [Monteiro-Riviere et al.
2005; Shvedova et al. 2003]. It remains unclear, however, how these findings may be
extrapolated to a potential occupational risk, given that additional data are not yet
available for comparing the cell model studies with actual conditions of occupational
exposure. Research on the dermal exposure of nanomaterials is ongoing (www.unileipzig.
de/~nanoderm/). Ingestion can occur from
Inhalation: Inhalation is the most common route of exposure
to airborne particles in the workplace. Inhalation may lead to the formation of lung
Granulomas or possibly Mesothelioma. Use NIOSH Approved respirators (N100 or P100)
with a full face shield to prevent Inhalation.
Ingestion: No known hazards, but may irritate gastrointestinal tract
Acute and Chronic High concentration of dusts may be irritating to eyes, skin,
Health Effects: mucus membranes and respiratory tract. Ingestion can occur from
Unintentional hand to mouth transfer of materials; this has been found to happen with
Traditional materials, and it is scientifically reasonable to assume that it also could happen
During handling of nanomaterials. Ingestion may also accompany inhalation exposure
because particles that are cleared from the respiratory tract via the mucociliary escalator
may be swallowed [ICRP 1994]. Little is known about possible adverse effects from
the ingestion of nanomaterials.
- Information pertaining to particular dangers for man and environment
R 36/37 Irritating to eyes and respiratory system.