3 - Hazards
Eye Contact: May cause eye irritation
Skin Contact: At this time, it is not fully known
whether skin penetration of nanoparticles
would result in adverse effects in animal models.
However,topical application of raw SWCNT
to nude mice has been shown to cause dermal
irritation[Murray et al. 2007]. Studies
conducted in vitro using primary or cultured human skin
cells have shown that both SWCNT
and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) can enter
cells and cause release of pro-
inflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress, and decreased
viability [Monteiro-Riviere et al.
2005; Shvedova et al. 2003]. It remains unclear,
however, how these findings may be
extrapolated to a potential occupational risk, given
that additional data are not yet
available for comparing the cell model studies with
actual conditions of occupational
exposure. Research on the dermal exposure of
nanomaterials is ongoing (www.unileipzig.
de/~nanoderm/). Ingestion can occur from
Inhalation: Inhalation is the most common route
to airborne particles in the workplace. Inhalation may
lead to the formation of lung
Granulomas or possibly Mesothelioma. Use NIOSH Approved
respirators (N100 or P100)
with a full face shield to prevent Inhalation.
Ingestion: No known hazards, but may irritate
Acute and Chronic High concentration of dusts may be
irritating to eyes, skin,
Health Effects: mucus membranes and respiratory tract.
Ingestion can occur from
Unintentional hand to mouth transfer of materials; this has
been found to happen with
Traditional materials, and it is scientifically reasonable
to assume that it also could happen
handling of nanomaterials. Ingestion may also accompany
particles that are cleared from the respiratory tract via
the mucociliary escalator
swallowed [ICRP 1994]. Little is known about possible
adverse effects from
ingestion of nanomaterials.
Information pertaining to particular dangers for man and
R 36/37 Irritating to eyes and respiratory system.