Graphene Oxide

Graphene Oxide Products

Graphene Oxide (GO) is a 2 dimensional sheet of highly oxidized carbon atoms decorated with oxygen-containing groups on the top, bottom, and edges. Originally called graphite oxide, it’s easily dispersed in water, polymers, solvents, and can be thermally or chemically reduced to graphene. GO becomes more conductive after reduction (RGO) which removes the surface functionality and restores it’s structure. It’s rich oxygen functionality provides for dispersion in organic solvents, water, and polymer matrixes.

Molecular Structure

Graphene Oxide Products

Single & Few Layer GO 

Variety of Platelet Sizes

High Oxygen Content & Freeze Dried to Preserve Solubility

Reduced GO (RGO)



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We recommend storing it in a lab refrigerator to preserve it. It has a 6 month shelf life.

Quotes are available online thru our cart. Simply add the products and quantities you need into the cart, calculate shipping, and click the “Quote or Buy” button. Get an online quote today!

To find the price for a specific quantity, click the “select options” button, enter in the quantity you need and the cart will display the price for that quantity.

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  • Few Layer Graphene Oxide 2-4L

    Few Layer Graphene Oxide 2-4L

    $195.00 - $225.00 / per gram
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  • graphene oxide gel

    Graphene Oxide Gel

    $125.00 - $175.00 / per gram
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  • Reduced-Graphene-Oxide

    Reduced Graphene Oxide

    $400.00 - $450.00 / g
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  • Single Layer Graphene Oxide

    Single Layer Graphene Oxide

    $195.00 - $225.00 / per gram
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  • Single Layer Graphene Oxide 1-20um

    Single Layer Graphene Oxide 1-20um

    $400.00 - $450.00 / per gram
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  • Single Layer Graphene Oxide 450nm SLGO

    Single Layer Graphene Oxide 450nm

    $400.00 - $450.00 / per gram
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Graphene Oxide Properties

Graphene Oxide’s properties are unique due to it’s high surface area, functionality and 2D sheet-like structure. It typically has >40% oxygen groups (including OH, COOH, & Epoxide groups) and is highly soluble in Di water, NMP, DMF, THF, Ethanol, and other polar solvents. GO can be reduced by a variety of methods to restore it’s 2D graphene structure.

GO isn’t conductive or strong due to the voids in its structure created during synthesis but can be reduced (called RGO) to restore it’s conductive and mechanical properties.

Graphene Oxide Synthesis

Originally called graphite oxide, GO’s synthesis methods have been known for decades. GO is synthesized by reacting graphite with strong oxidizers (potassium permanganate and sulphuric acid), rinsed and centrifuged repeatedly until the rinse water filtrate is PH neutral. It’s freeze dried to preserve solubility.  The bulk product is a brownish/yellowish solid material that retains the layer structure of graphite but with a much larger and irregular spacing.

There are four common synthesis methods: Staudenmaier, Hofmann, Brodie and Hummers.  Variations of these methods exist, including the Tour method (a modified hummers method) and synthesis is constantly being improved to provide a more consistent quality and cheaper processes.

The oxidation process is typically evaluated by the carbon/oxygen ratio, >40% is considered acceptable.

Graphene Oxide Applications


Applications include catalysis, drug delivery, solar, battery, tissue scaffolding and many other applications. It’s high solubility and ability to be reduce enable solution processing makes it a desirable material.  This overcomes the well known dispersion problems associated with other nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes, enabling improvements in materials science.

Graphene Oxide Structure

2D Sheet Like Structure

It’s 2D structure is shown above. The functional groups present impart GO with it’s legendary solubility compared to most nanomaterials. Surfactants aren’t needed when dispersing into polar solvents such as Di Water, NMP, DMF, THF, DCB, Ethanol, or others. Reducing GO removes the surface functionality and restores it’s conductive properties.

Graphene Oxide Chemical Formula

GO’s chemical formula and molecular weight are:

Chemical Formula:C140H42O20
Molecular Weight:2043.856 g/mol

Reduced Graphene Oxide

RGO’s structure at different process steps

RGO is synthesized as GO and reduced afterwards. Reduction removes the surface functionality and restores the molecular structure to one closer to pristine graphene than GO.

Reduction is typically a chemical, thermal or electrochemical process. Other techniques are able to produce very high quality rGO, similar to pristine graphene, but can be complex or time consuming to carry out.

Graphene Oxide Reduction Methods Are:

Treating with hydrazine hydrate and maintaining the solution at 100c for 24 hours

Exposing to hydrogen plasma

Exposing to a strong pulse light (photo sintering), such as xenon or UV

Heating in distilled water at varying degrees for different lengths of time

Heating to very high levels in a furnace

Directly heating in a microwave

Electrochemical methods

Heating to 400C in a forming gas atmosphere (95% argon, 5% hydrogen)

Chemical reduction is a highly scalable method however the surface area and electronic conductivity achieved isn’t high enough for many applications.

Heating GO to temperatures greater than 1000℃ creates RGO which has a very high surface area but the annealing process damages the structure when pressure builds up and carbon dioxide is released.

The reduction process can reduce it’s mass by ~ 30% and improves its electronic properties. Electrochemical reduction has been shown to produce very high quality RGO, almost identical in terms of structure to pristine graphene.

RGO can be selectively functionalized, enhancing its compatibility with the solvent/matrix or to create new compounds when combining RGO with other two dimensional materials. It’s surface chemistry can be tailored for compatibility with the application.

Graphene Oxide Price

Graphene Oxide price is determined by production volumes and degree of purification. Most of  products are between $75-225/g but some variations cost $450/g.

Our products are washed and centrifuged 15 times until the filtrate is pH neutral. Then it’s freeze dried to preserve solubility and stored in a refrigerator.

This process costs more than processes used by companies that sell GO in solution with a low pH. The low pH is because they’ve reduced the washing and centrifuging cycles.

Difference Between Graphene & Graphene Oxide

First we must establish what is graphene or graphite. It is generally accepted that 2D sheets that are less than 10 layers thick can be called graphene.  There are 3 main types of graphene: Graphene films which are typically made by CVD, ALD, or Epitaxial growth, Graphene Oxide which is exfoliated by reacting graphite in sulphuric acid with potassium permanganate in a highly exothermic reaction, & Graphene Nanoplatelets which can be plasma exfoliated or chemically exfoliated, ball milled, or thermally shocked and sheared to product stacks of graphene nanoplatelets.

So what’s the difference? It depends on your application. If you want electronic properties to make a sensor or device, we recommend CVD graphene, if you want good dispersion and solution processing, we recommend GO, if you want a mechanical reinforcing particle, we recommend graphene nanoplatelets.

Graphene Oxide Paper

GO Paper is relatively easy to make with vacuum or pressure filtration.  GO’s known to disperse very easily due to the functional groups on its surface. To make GO paper, researchers typically disperse it in a solvent such as water or an organic solvent and then using a 0.2um membrane filter, they pour the solution through a filtration apparatus and the membrane keeps the particles on top while the solvent is collected below.  When dry, the membrane can be removed leaving a free standing membrane paperlike product.

Graphene Oxide SDS

Please see our SDS at the link.

Graphene Oxide Dispersions

Dispersions are available from Cheap Tubes Inc. Please let us know your requirements such as solvent and loading ratio.  Our standard concentration is 2mgs/ml but we can go up to 10mgs/ml.

Publications using GO from Cheap Tubes Inc

Below are some publications that used GO from Cheap Tubes Inc.

GO Membranes as ultrathin molecular sieves

Inkjet printed acrylic formulations using RGO

GO− Polyethylenimine Nanoconstruct as a Gene Delivery Vector and Bioimaging Tool

In situ Raman spectroelectrochemistry of GO

New RGO/Alumina (RGO/Al2O3) Nanocomposite: Innovative Method of Synthesis and Characterization

Scientists Create World’s Lightest 3D Printed Materials – Graphene Aerogel!

Scientists 3D print graphene-based inks for ultralight supercapacitors!

Elemental Analysis:

Elemental analysis typically shows a higher oxygen content than carbon content with small amounts of hydrogen.

C: 35-42%

O: 45-55%

H: 3-5%

We can provide dispersions In Di Water, NMP, THF, or DMF. Hazmat shipping fees may apply.

XPS data

XPS data is for our SLGO 300-800nm product is below

XPS data

Films and Coatings

GO and RGO coatings are available with the specifications below.

  1. SLGO or SLRGO film on glass/wafer  (thickness 5-30 nm, area ~ 3-5 cm2, conductivity 10(4) – 10(5) Sm-1, sheet resistance 10(1)-10(3) Ω/sq)
  1. SLGO or SLRGO film on organic flexible substrate  (thickness 5-30 nm, area ~ 3-5 cm2, conductivity 10(3) – 10(4) Sm-1, sheet resistance 10(2)-10(4) Ω/sq)
Films and Coatings

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